Tuesday, September 12, 2006

Genesis 8

8 1. Then God remembered1 Noah, every living thing, and all the livestock with him in the ark. So God caused his Spirit to sweep over the earth such that the waters abated.2 2. He closed up the fountains of the deep and the sluice-gates of the heavens; He shut up the rain from the heavens. 3. The waters returned from being on the earth, continually receding: by the end of 150 days, the waters had abated. 4. The ark came to rest in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat.3 5. The waters were steadily receding until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first day, the tops of the mountains appeared.

6. After 40 days, Noah opened the window of the ark he had made. 7. He sent out a raven, which went to and fro until the waters had dried off from the earth. 8. Then Noah sent out a dove to see if the waters had gone down from the face of the ground.4 9. But the dove could not find a resting place for her foot. So she returned to Noah, to the ark; for the waters were still over the face of all the earth. He reached out his hand and took her back to him in the ark. 10. Noah anxiously waited5 another seven days, after which he again sent out the dove from the ark. 11. The dove came back to him in the evening, and look! there was a freshly plucked olive leaf in her mouth!6 Then Noah knew that the waters had gone down from over the earth. 12. Then Noah anxiously waited another seven days before sending out the dove again. But this time, the dove never returned to him. 13. In Noah's six hundred and first year, the first month, and the first day of the month, the waters had dried from off the earth. So Noah removed the ark's cover, stared, and look! the face of the whole ground was dry. 14. In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was utterly dry.

15. Then God spoke to Noah, saying, 16. "Go out from the ark: you, your wife, your sons, and your sons' wives with you. 17. Every living thing that was with you of all flesh, from birds to livestock to every animal that creeps on the earth, shall be fruitful and multiply on the earth. 18. So Noah went out with his sons, his wife, and his sons' wives with him. 19. Every living animal: every creeping thing, all the birds, everything that moves on the earth, went out from the ark by families.

20. Then Noah built an ark to the Lord. He took from all the clean livestock and all the clean birds, and offered a burnt offering on the altar.

21. When He smelled the pleasing aroma, the Lord said to Himself, "I will never again curse the ground on man's account, since every thought of man's heart is evil from his youth.7 Therefore, I will never again smite all life as I have done. 22. For all the remaining days of the earth; planting and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, shall never cease."8



1. This is a covenantal remembering that is active in saving. The verse colors starting from 6:11 going to 8:22 form a chiasm. 8:1 is the center-piece of the chiasm, and is thus the most important part of the chiasm. See R. Kent Hughes Genesis, pg 132, quoting Ross. Furthermore, chapter 8 is a mirror of chapter one in many ways, down to the very way in which land appears, animals appear, vegetation appears, etc. Hence the chapter color-coding (matches chapter 1). text
2. See 1:2. The Spirit hovers there but sweeps here in preparation for new creation. See also John 3. text
3. The ark has its Sabbath on the seventeenth day of the month, in the seventh month. "Came to rest" comes from the same root as Noah's name. See here for a map of Ararat. text
4. See ISBE I, pg 512 for a very interesting insight into the wisdom of Noah in choosing these particular birds. text
5. Other words could have been used for a tranquil waiting. This word is used of trembling, as in a woman in labor. See the very parallel and connected idea in Romans 8:22. One can well believe that Noah was anxious to get off the boat by this time! text
6. The word "look" is intended to place the reader in the emotional state of Noah on seeing the leaf. This is how the word "behold" functions all the time in the Hebrew Bible. Notice the time detail: the dove found places all day to rest her foot. There was fresh foliage: the work of new creation had begun. text
7. The flow of thought here is difficult. The meaning seems to be that the Lord thinks further smiting useless to correct the problem. What good would it do? It will not change the human heart. Therefore, the era of patience and grace is about to begin, such that heart renovation will happen. This fits in very well with the covenant that the Lord institutes with Noah here, a covenant in which common grace makes room for special grace. text

8. The word for "cease" here is the same as that for Sabbath. There is no Sabbath for the earth until the new heavens and new earth. text

Monday, July 17, 2006

Chapter 7

7 1. Then the Lord said to Noah, "Go now, you and all your house, into the ark, for I have seen that you alone are righteous before me in this generation.1 2. From all the clean animals take for yourself seven pairs, males with their mates; and from the animals that are not clean take a pair, a male and his mate. 3. Also, from the birds of the heavens, seven pairs (a male and a female) to preserve seed on the face of the whole earth. 4. For, seven days from now, I will make it rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights so that I will annihilate all life which I have made from off the face of the earth. 5. So Noah did everything just as the Lord had commanded him.

6. Now, Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of many waters came on the earth. 7. Noah, his sons, his wife, and his sons' wives went with him into the ark to escape the waters of the flood. 8. From the clean animals and from the unclean animals, from the birds and from everything that creeps on the earth, 9. two and two went with Noah into the ark; a male and a female just as God had commanded Noah.

10. It came about after seven days that the waters of the flood came upon the earth. 11. In the six hundredth year of the life of Noah, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the many fountains of the deep burst open, and the sluice-gates of heaven were opened.2 12. The rain was coming down on the earth for forty days and forty nights. 13. On that very day3 Noah, and Shem, Ham, and Japheth (the sons of Noah), the wife of Noah, and the three wives of his sons all went into the ark, 14. they and all living things according to their kind: all cattle according to their kind, all things that creep on the earth according to their kind, and all birds according to their kind, every winged animal. 15. They all went to Noah into the ark, two by two, from all flesh in which was the breath of life. 16. Male and female of all flesh went in just as God had commanded him. Then the Lord shut him in.

17. The flood was forty days on the earth; the waters augmented exceedingly, and they lifted the ark high over the earth. 18. The waters strengthened and increased greatly on the earth, but the ark floated on the face of the waters. 19. The waters became very exceedingly strong on the earth and they covered all the high mountains under the whole heavens.4 20. Fifteen cubits was the height over the mountains by which the waters prevailed. 21. All flesh died: things creeping on the earth, birds, livestock, beasts, every swarming thing on the earth, and all mankind. 22. Everything that had the breath of life in its nostrils; everything on dry land, died. 23. He annihilated every being that existed on the face of the land from mankind to beast to creeping things to birds of the heavens. He annihilated them all from the earth. Only Noah was left, along with all who were in the ark with him. 24. The waters overpowered the earth for 150 days.


1. As per Adrian's suggestion, I will make a textual distinction between "you" singular and "you" plural. "You" singular will be written "you." "You" plural will be written "you." If you needs emphasis, then italics will be the only way to show it. I have revised all the previous posts to reflect this change. text
2. See here for a visual orientation to how the fountains looked to an ancient person, as well as how the sluice-gates looked. text
3. "That very day" would have to refer to the day before the rain came. It was the day on which Noah and his family entered the ark. text
4. The phrase "under all the heavens" textually precludes a local flood understanding. text

Thursday, April 06, 2006

Genesis 6

6 1. It so happened when mankind began to multiply on the face of the earth, that daughters were born to them.1 2. When the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, they took as wives any from all they chose. 3. Then the Lord said, "My Spirit will not abide in mankind forever: he is but flesh. Therefore, his days shall be 120 years.2 4. The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterwards, when the sons of God went in to men's daughters, who bore children to them. These were the great men of old, men of renown.3

5. The Lord saw that the wickedness of mankind had multiplied on the earth, and that every thought and machination of their hearts was nothing but evil the whole time. 6. The Lord regretted that He had made mankind on the earth, and He was grieved at heart. 7. The Lord said, "I will wipe out mankind, whom I created, from the face of the earth: from man to beast to creeping thing to bird of the heavens,4 for I regret that I have made them. 8. However, Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord.

9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was a completely righteous man in his generation.5 Noah walked with God. 10. Noah sired three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 11. The earth was corrupted in God's sight: the whole earth was filled with violence. 12. God observed the earth, and look! it was corrupt, since all flesh6 had corrupted its way on the earth.

13. God said to Noah, "The end of all flesh is approaching before Me, since the earth is full of violence because of their presence. Now see, I will corrupt them and the earth. 14. Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood. Make compartments in it, and cover it inside and out with pitch.7 15. These are the dimensions of the ark that you will make: 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high. 16. A roof you shall make for the ark. Finish the sides to within 18 inches of the roof. Put a door in the side of the ark, and make the ark with first, second, and third decks. 17. Now see, I will be bringing the floodwaters on the earth, to corrupt all flesh under heaven which has in it the breath of life. Everything on earth will die. 18. I will establish my covenant with you. You will enter the ark: you and your sons, your wife, and your son's wives with you. 19. From every living thing (from all flesh) two of everything will go into the ark to preserve life with you. Male and female shall there be. 20. From the birds according to their kind, from beasts according to their kind, from creeping things of the ground according to their kind, two from all will go with you to preserve life. 21. Take with you every kind of food that is eaten, having gathered it to yourself. It shall be food for you to eat." 22. Noah did everything according to the command that God had given him.



1. The fact that "man" is singular at the beginning of the verse, and yet daughters were born to them indicates that the "sons of God," being a different category of beings, has at least some reference to superhuman agency. My view is that the sons of God are humans who have demons acting behind them. text
2. This refers more probably to the time remaining before the Flood, not the span of a human's life, which would actually go down to 70 or 80 years (Psalm 90:10). See Jerome, in ACCS on this question. text
3. The great men of old were not the Nephilim, but a separate group. We do not know for certain who the Nephilim were. The tradition that they were giants (see KJV) is from the Latin "gigantes," which is far from being a sure translation of "Nephilim." text
4. Mankind here seems to be representative of all living things. Certainly, all living things will share the same doom as humanity when the Flood comes. text
5. God acted with His grace on Noah, and therefore, Noah was completely justified by faith. In this sense was he completely righteous. text
6. This is a good place to start for understanding Paul's flesh-S(s)pirit contrast, which is not a contrast between matter and non-matter, but between unregenerate and regenerate. text
7. See Exodus 2:3. Moses has his own story in mind! text


Monday, March 13, 2006

Genesis 5

5 1. This is the book of the generations of Adam at the time when God created man. In the image of God He made him. 2. Male and female he created them. He bessed them and named them Man on the day He created them.1

3. Adam lived 130 years and sired a son in his2 own likeness, according to his image, and named him "Seth." 4. The days of Adam after he had sired Seth were 800, and he sired other sons and daughters.3 5. All the days of Adam's life were 930 years. Then he died.

6. When Seth had lived 105 years, he sired Enosh. 7. Seth lived after he had sired Enosh 807 years, and he sired other sons and daughters. 8. All the days of Seth were 912 years. Then he died.

9. When Enosh had lived 90 years, he sired Qenan. 10. Enosh lived after he had sired Qenan 815 years, and he sired other sons and daughters. 11. All the days of Enosh were 905 years. Then he died.

12. When Qenan had lived 70 years, he sired Mahalalel. 13. Qenana lived after he had sired Mahalalel 840 years, and he sired other sons and daughters. 14. All the days of Qenan were 910 years. Then he died.

15. When Mahalalel had lived 65 years, he sired Yared. 16. Mahalalel lived after he had sired Yared 830 years and sired other sons and daughters. 17. All the days of Mahalalel were 895 years. Then he died.

18. When Yared had lived 162 years, he sired Enoch. 19. Yared lived after he had sired Enoch 800 years, and sired other sons and daughters. 20. All the days of Yared were 962 years. Then he died.

21. When Enoch had lived 65 years, he sired Metushelach. 22. And Enoch walked with God after he had sired Metushelach 300 years, and sired other sons and daughters. 23. All the days of Enoch were 365 years.4 24. Enoch walked with God, and then was not, because God took him.

25. When Metushelach had lived 187 years, he sired Lamech. 26. Metushelach lived after he sired Lamech 782 years, and sired other sons and daughters. 27. All the days of Metushelach were 969 years. Then he died.

28. When Lamech had lived 182 years, he sired a son. 29. He called him Noah saying, "This one will give us rest from our work, and from the pain of our hands because of the ground which the Lord has cursed." 30. Lamech lived after he sired Noah 595 years and sired other sons and daughters. 31. All the days of Lamech were 777 years. Then he died.

32. When Noah was five hundred years old,5 Noah sired Shem, Ham, and Japheth.


1. It is extremely difficult to distinguish between the instances in which "Adam" is meant and when "man" is meant. All the instances of "Adam" and "man" in the first two verses are the same word. link back to text
2. Notice that the son is not in God's likeness but in Adam's. This does not mean that mankind is no longer created in God's image entirely (see 9:6). link back to text
3. This is where Cain got his wife: he must have married one of his sisters. link back to text
4. Note the interruption of the normal pattern here. A ray of hope against death (with its monotonous refrain "Then he died") enters with Enoch, who lives a year of years (365 years) and does not die. link back to text
5. Hebrew here has literally "Son of five hundred years." The Hebrew phrase means "characterized by," since fathers are like sons. link back to text



Genesis 4

4 1. Adam knew Eve his wife. She conceived and bore Cain, for she said, "I have acquired a man from the Lord. 2. In addition, she bore his brother Abel. Now Abel was a shepherd of sheep, but Cain was a worker of the ground.

3. After a while, it so happened that Cain brought from the fruit of the ground an offering to the Lord. 4. Abel had also brought an offering of the firstborn of his flock, from the very best. The Lord looked with favor on Abel and his offering. 5. But on Cain and his offering the Lord did not look with favor. Cain became exceedingly angry and his face downcast. 6. So the Lord said to Cain, "Why are you angry, and why is your face downcast? 7. Is it not the case that if you do well, you will be accepted; but that if you do not do well, then sin is lying at your doorstep? Its craving is to overcome you, but you must master it."

8. Then Cain spoke to his brother Abel.1 While they were in the field, Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and killed him. 9. Then the Lord said to Cain, "Where is Abel your brother?" Cain answered, "I don't know. Am I my brother's guardian?" 10. The Lord said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood cries out to me from the ground! 11. Now you are cursed more than2 the ground which opened its maw to receive your brother's blood from your hand! 12. If you should continue to work the ground, it will no longer yield its strength to you. You shall be a wandering vagabond on the earth." 13. Cain said to the Lord, "My punishment is greater than I can bear. 14. For you have banished me this day from the whole face of the earth, and I will be hidden from your presence. I have become a wandering vagabond on the earth. And anyone who finds me will kill me." 15. The Lord said to him, "Not so! Vengeance will come sevenfold on anyone who kills Cain." Then the Lord set on Cain a sign so that no one would kill him who found him. 16. So Cain went out from the presence of the Lord and lived in the land of Nod, which was east of Eden.

17. Cain knew his wife. She conceived and bore Enoch. When Cain built a city, he named it after his son Enoch. 18. To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad sired Mehujael; Mehujael sired Methushael; Methushael sired Lamech. 19. Now, Lamech took for himself two wives. the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other was Zillah. 20. Adah bore Yabal, who was the father of those who dwell in tents and are ranchers. 21. The name of his brother was Yubal. He was the father of all who play the lyre and flute. 22. Zillah also bore Tubal-cain, a smith of all kinds of bronze and iron tools. Tubal-cain's sister was Naamah.

23. Lamech said to his wives, "Adah and Zillah, listen to me; wives of Lamech, hear my speech. For I have killed a man for wounding me, and a young man for striking me. 24. If Cain is avenged sevenfold, then Lamech seventy-seven fold."3

25. Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son. She named him "Seth," saying, "God has appointed another seed in place of Abel, since Cain killed him. 26. To Seth also was born a son. He named him "Enosh." At that time people began to call upon the name of the Lord.



1. Many ancient versions, including the LXX, have, "Abel said to his brother, 'Let's go out to the field,'" probably due to the immediately following reference to the field. It is not in the Hebrew text. link back to text
2. I follow the recent _Tanakh_ translation here. Most translations have the incomprehensible "from the ground." Cain still lives on terra firma! link back to text
3. Seven is the number of completeness. Cain will be avenged perfectly, but Lamech will be avenged to perfection squared. link back to text

Saturday, March 11, 2006

Genesis 3

3 1. Now the serpent was more crafty1 than any of the other wild animals which the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, "Has God indeed said that you2 are not to eat of any tree in the garden?" 2. The woman replied to the serpent, "From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat. 3. However, from the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden God said, 'Do not eat from it or touch it, lest you die.'" 4. Then the serpent said to the woman, "You will not surely die. 5. For God knows that on the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened and you will3 be like God, knowing4 good and evil. 6. The woman saw that the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one clever, and so she took from its fruit, ate it, and gave it also to her husband who was with her, and he ate. 7. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked. So they sewed fig leaves together and made girdles for themselves.

8. Then they heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the Spirit of the (Judgment) Day.5 Therefore the man and his wife hid themselves from the face of the Lord God in the midst of the trees of the garden. 9. The Lord God called out to the man saying, "Where are you?" 10. He answered, "Your sound I heard in the garden. I was afraid, because I was naked, and so I hid." 11. Then God said, "Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?" 12. Then the man said, "The woman, whom you gave to be with me, she gave to me from the tree, and I ate." 13. So the Lord God said to the woman, "What is this you have done?" The woman replied, "The serpent beguiled me, and I ate."

14. Therefore, the Lord God said to the serpent, "Since you have done this, cursed are you more than all cattle, and more than every other wild animal. You will go about on your belly and eat dust all the days of your life. 15. Enmity will I put between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed. He will strike your head, whereas you will strike his heel."

16. To the woman He said, "I will greatly increase your pain in childbirth: in anguish you will delivers sons.6 Your craving will be towards your husband, but he will dominate you."

17. And to Adam He said, "Since you have listened to the voice of your wife and eaten from the tree about which I commanded you "Do not eat from it," cursed is the ground because of you. In pain you will eat of it all the days of your life. 18. Thorns and thistles it will raise for you, but you will eat the plants of the field. 19. By the sweat of your brow you will eat bread until you return to the ground, for from it you were taken. Indeed, dust you are, and to dust you will return.

20. The man named his wife "Eve," for she would become the mother of all who live. 21. The Lord God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, clothing them.

22. The Lord God said, "Look, the man had been7 like one of Us, knowing good and evil. Now suppose he reaches out his hand and takes also from the Tree of Life, and in eating lives forever?" 23. Therefore, the Lord God banished him from the Garden of Eden to work the ground from which he was taken. 24. He drove the man out and placed the cherubim east of the Garden of Eden and a flaming sword8 turning every which way to guard the way to the Tree of Life.



1. This word comes from the same root as "naked" in 2:25. The serpent's craftiness leads to a discovery of nakedness. link back to text
2. The word "you" here is plural, which hints that Adam was present, as is further suggested by verse 6, which says that Adam was with her. link back to text
3. Satan's lie consists in denying that they are currently like God, directly contrary to 1:26. See 3:22. link back to text
4. "Knowing" could be used here in the sense of "determining." link back to text
5. This begins the covenantal lawsuit of Adam and Eve. The sound of the Lord is not quiet, nor is the "Spirit of the Day" the same as the rather casual "cool of the day" given in most translations. God is not out for a stroll. See Meredith Kline's _Images of the Spirit_, chapter 4 for a defense of this interpretation. link back to text
6. This translation does justice to the promise that Paul talks about in 1 Tim 2:15. Of course, Eve will bear daughters as well. But it is in the Son that the promise consists. link back to text
7. This translation makes much more sense of Satan's lie in verse 5 (on which see note 3), and is a perfectly legitimate way to translate the perfect tense. Furthermore, it makes God's statement a promise of grace, rather than an evidence of some kind of paranoia on God's part. link back to text
8. The sword seems to be doing duty by itself, as opposed to being in the hand of the cherubim, as often portrayed. link back to text


Friday, February 17, 2006

Genesis 2

2 1. So the heavens and the earth and all their hosts were finished. 2. On the seventh day God finished the work which He had done. He rested on the seventh day from all the work that He had done. 3. Therefore, the Lord blessed the seventh day and set it apart, because on that day He ceased from all the work which He had created to do.

4. These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day when the Lord God made the earth and the heavens,1 5. when there was no plant of the field on the earth, nor any crop of the field sprouted yet (for the Lord God had not yet caused it to rain on the earth and there was no man to work the ground),2 6. then a rain cloud3 went up from the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground. 7. Then the Lord God made man from the dust of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living soul. 8. The Lord God planted a garden in Eden, toward the east, and He placed there the man He had made. 9. The Lord God caused to shoot up from the earth all manner of trees pleasing in appearance and good for food; also the Tree of Life in the middle of the garden, and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.


10. Now, a river flowed out from Eden to water the garden. From there it divided into four rivers. 11. The name of the first was Pishon; it flows around the whole land of Havilah where there is gold. 12. (The gold of that land is good. Bdellium and onyx are also there.) 13. The name of the second river is Gihon; it flows around the whole land of Cush. 14. The name of the third river is Hideqel,4 east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

15. The Lord God took the man and settled him in the garden of Eden that he might work it and guard it.5 16. The Lord God commanded the man, "From all the trees of the garden you may certainly eat. 17. However, from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil you shall not eat. For on the day you eat from it you shall certainly die."

18. The Lord God said, "It is not good6 that the man is alone. I will make for him a helper like him." 19. So, having formed from the earth every living beast of the field and every bird of the heavens, the Lord God brought them to the man to see what he would name them. Whatever the man called each living being, that was its name. 20. So the man gave names to every beast, bird of the heavens, and living animal of the field. However, for Adam He did not find a helper suitable to him. 21. So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept. Then He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh underneath it. 22. The Lord God fashioned the rib (which He had taken from the man) into a woman. Then He brought her to the man. 23. The man said, "Finally, this is bone from my bone and flesh from my flesh! She shall be called 'woman,' because she was taken from man." 25. The two of them were naked, the man and his wife, but they were not ashamed.



1. Note the chiastic structure: a heavens; b earth; c created; d day; c' made; b' earth; a' heavens. link back to text
2. Lit. "There is no Adam (man) to work the Adamah (ground)." link back to text
3. The justification for this translation can be found in Westminster Theological Journal 20.2 (1958), pp. 148-151. Meredith Kline has convincingly shown that there were two things lacking in verse 5, which God then supplies in verses 6-7. In other words, verse 6 is the solution to the lack of water, while verse 7 shows God supplying the lacking man. link back to text
4. Other translations have "Tigris." link back to text
5. I choose not to translate this as a hendyadis (one idea spoken with two words), but rather as a reference to Adam's defense of the garden against intruders, such as the serpent. link back to text
6. This verse contrasts with 1:31. link back to text

Saturday, February 11, 2006

Genesis 1

1 1. IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH. 2. Now, the earth was uninhabitable and uninhabited, and darkness was over the face of the deep; yet the Spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.

3. Then God said, "Let there be light." So there was light. 4. God saw that the light was good; so, He made a separation1 between light and darkness. 5. God called the light "Day;" the darkness He called "Night." So there was evening and there was morning: one day.

6. Then God said, "Let there be a dome in the middle of the waters, to be a divider of waters from waters." 7. So God made the dome, dividing the waters under the dome from the waters above the dome. So it was. 8. Then God named the dome "Heavens." There was evening and there was morning, the second day.

9.God said, "Let the waters under the heavens be gathered to one place, and let dry land appear." It was so. 10. Then God called the dry land "Earth;" the gathered waters "Seas." God saw that it was good. 11. Then God said, "Let the earth sprout forth vegetation: plants bearing seed and trees with fruit having its seed in it, both according to their kind on the earth." So it was. 12. The earth brought forth the plant bearing seed according to its kind, and the tree with fruit having its seed in it according to its kind. God saw that it was good. 13. There was evening and there was morning, the third day.

14. Then God said, "Let there be lights in the dome of the heavens in order to divide between day and night, and to be for set times: for days and years. 15. Furthermore, let them be lights in the dome of the heavens in order to give light to the earth.” It was so. 16. So God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light2 to rule the night. The stars also (!). 17. God put them in the dome of the heavens to give light to the earth, 18. to rule the day and the night, and to divide between light and darkness. God saw that it was good. 19. There was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

20. Then God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living animals; the winged bird fly all over the earth, across the face of the dome of heaven.” 21. Thus, God created the great sea monsters, and all living animals according to their kind that glide and teem in the water; every winged bird according to its kind. God saw that it was good. 22. Then God blessed them saying, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the waters of the sea, and let the bird multiply on the earth.” 23. There was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.

24. God said, “Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: domestic animals, creeping things, and wild animals, each according to its kind. It was so. 25. God made the wild animal according to its kind, the domestic animal according to its kind, and the animal that creeps on the earth according to its kind. God saw that it was good.

26. Then God said, “Let us make man in our image; to be similar to us, such that he will rule over the fish of the sea, the bird of the heavens, the domestic animal; over the whole earth and over every creeping animal that creeps on the earth.” 27. Thus, God created mankind in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28. God blessed them: God said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth, subduing it and ruling over the fish of the sea, over the bird of the heavens, and over every living animal that creeps on the earth. 29. Furthermore, God said, “Behold, I have given to you for food all vegetation bearing its own seed on the earth, and every tree bearing fruit with its seed in it. 30. Indeed, for every living creature on the earth: for every bird of the heavens and for every earthly creeping thing which has the breath of life, this green vegetation shall be for food. It was so. 31. God saw all that He had made. Now look! it was splendid! There was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.



1. A temporal separation, not spatial. link back to text
2. Moses intentionally does not use the terms “sun” and “moon.” This is in order to polemecise against ANE mythologies. “Sun” and “Moon” were ANE gods. link back to text

The Purpose of This Blog

I have started my own translation of the Bible. I call it "The Accent Translation." Eventually I hope to include the entire Bible. I intend this to be a fairly literal translation. However, I will never sacrifice good English grammar to achieve a literal translation. The two features that will be obvious right away are the colors and the italics/bold. The colors are implemented in order to show word connections in the original language. There are puns, anagrams, root-word connections, etc., that cannot be brought across in English. So, if one word is color coordinated with another word, then you can know that there is some kind of connection in the original language. The order of the colors is as follows: red, dun, green, turquoise, blue, purple. If anything is out of that order (word, verse, or chapter), then look elsewhere for the coordination. The same thing is true of verses and chapters. I will be color-coding these as well, to show correspondence. The other main feature is the italics and bold type. This is to indicate emphasis for reading purposes. I will stick to what is emphasized in the original language. There are, therefore, three levels of emphasis, going from lowest amount of emphasis to highest: plain italics, italics with bold, and italics in bold in capital letters. With these two features, I intend to create a translation that will be three-dimensional. I hope and pray that this will be helpful. S.D.G.